One in Messiah Congregation
A short study
What happened to dinosaurs?
It was not until 1900’s that the word “dinosaur” was invented
Sir Richard Owen, 20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892, a famous British anatomist and first superintendent of the British Museum (and a staunch anti-Darwinist), on viewing the bones of Iguanodon and Megalosaurus, realized these represented a unique group of reptiles that had not yet been classified.
Some thoughts of what may have happened to dinosaurs:
As people moved in, dinosaurs moved out.
People hunted them.
Atmosphere changed after the flood.
Many were drowned in the flood.
In many countries, there are many accounts of imprints of carvings of dinosaurs on rocks, wall and pots and there are many books that have pictures of these finds.
In Scripture, the word dinosaur does not appear.
However, here are the words that do appear:
לויתן livyâthân - a wreathed animal, that is, a serpent (especially the crocodile or some other large sea monster)
BDB Definition: leviathan, sea monster, dragon, large aquatic animal, perhaps the extinct dinosaur, plesiosaurus, exact meaning unknown
Total KJV Occurrences: 6
Job_41:1, Psa_74:14, Psa_104:26, Isa_27:1 (2)
Dragon, Dragons, great whales
תּנּים תּנּין tannı̂yn tannı̂ym - tan-neen', tan-neem' - (The second form used in Eze_29:3); intensive from the same as H8565;
a marine or land monster, that is, sea serpent or jackal: - dragon, sea-monster, serpent, whale.
BDB Definition: dragon, serpent, sea monster, dinosaur, sea or river monster, venomous snake
Total KJV Occurrences: 27
Deu_32:33, Job_30:29, Psa_44:19, Psa_74:13, Psa_148:7, Isa_13:22, Isa_34:13, Isa_35:7, Isa_43:20, Jer_9:11, Jer_10:22, Jer_14:6, Jer_49:33, Jer_51:37, Mic_1:8
Psa_91:13 (2), Isa_27:1, Isa_51:9, Jer_51:34, Eze_29:3
Fiery flying serpent
שׂרף śârâph - saw-rawf' - From H8313; burning, that is, (figuratively) poisonous (serpent); specifically a saraph or symbolical creature (from their copper color): - fiery (serpent), seraph.
1) serpent, fiery serpent
1a) poisonous serpent (fiery from burning effect of poison)
2) seraph, seraphim
2a) majestic beings with 6 wings, human hands or voices in attendance upon God
Total KJV Occurrences: 11
Num_21:6 (2), Num_21:8, Deu_8:15, Isa_14:29, Isa_30:6
Num_21:8, Isa_14:29, Isa_30:6
עוּף ‛ûph - oof - A primitive root; to cover (with wings or obscurity); hence (as denominative from H5775) to fly; also (by implication of dimness) to faint (from the darkness of swooning): - brandish, be (wax) faint, flee away, fly (away - ), set, shine forth, weary.
1) to fly, fly about, fly away (verb)
1a1) to fly, hover
1a2) to fly away
1b) (Hiphil) to cause to fly, light upon
1c1) to fly about or to and fro
1c2) to cause to fly to and fro, brandish
1d) (Hithpolel) to fly away
2) (Qal) to cover, be dark (verb)
3) gloom (noun feminine)
Total KJV Occurrences: 29
Gen_1:20, 2Sa_22:11, Job_20:7-8 (2), Psa_18:10, Psa_55:6, Psa_90:10, Pro_23:5, Isa_6:2, Isa_11:14, Isa_60:8, Hos_9:11, Hab_1:8
Pro_26:2, Isa_14:29, Isa_30:6, Isa_31:5, Zec_5:1-2 (2)
1Sa_14:28, 1Sa_14:31, 2Sa_21:15
BDB Definition: perhaps an extinct dinosaur, a Diplodocus or Brachiosaurus, exact meaning unknown
Total KJV Occurrences: 1
Gen. 1  And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
Job. 40  Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox.
Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his
 He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together.
 His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron.
 He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him.
 Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play.
 He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens.
 The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about.
 Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth.
 He taketh it with his eyes: his nose pierceth through snares.
An elephant’s tiny tail or a hippo’s tail that looks like a flap of skin is quite unlike a cedar tree.
Clearly, the elephant and the hippo could not possibly be “behemoth.”
The behemoth sounds like Brachiosaurus, one of the large dinosaurs.
Isa.14  Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken: for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be fiery flying serpent
 The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the young and old lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people that shall not profit them.
This could be a reference to one of the pterodactyls, which are popularly thought of as flying dinosaurs, such as the Pteranodon, Rhamphorhynchus, or Ornithocheirus.
Job. 41  Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down?
 Canst thou put an hook into his nose? or bore
his jaw through with a thorn?
 Will he make many supplications unto thee? will he speak soft words unto thee?
 Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever?
 Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens?
 Shall the companions make a banquet of him? shall they part him among the merchants?
 Canst thou fill his skin with barbed iron? or his head with fish spears?
 Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, do no more.
 Behold, the hope of him is in vain: shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him?
 None is so fierce that dare stir him up: who then is able to stand before me?
 Who hath prevented me, that I should repay him? whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine.
 I will not conceal his parts, nor his power, nor his comely proportion.
 Who can discover the face of his garment? or who can come to him with his double bridle?
 Who can open the doors of his face? his teeth are terrible round about.
 His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal.
 One is so near to another, that no air can come between them.
 They are joined one to another, they stick together, that they cannot be sundered.
 By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
 Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out.
 Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron.
 His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth.
 In his neck remaineth strength, and sorrow is turned into joy before him.
 The flakes of his flesh are joined together: they are firm in themselves; they cannot be moved.
 His heart is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone.
 When he raiseth up himself, the mighty are afraid: by reason of breakings they purify themselves.
 The sword of him that layeth at him cannot hold: the spear, the dart, nor the habergeon.
 He esteemeth iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood.
 The arrow cannot make him flee: slingstones are turned with him into stubble.
 Darts are counted as stubble: he laugheth at the shaking of a spear.
 Sharp stones are under him: he spreadeth sharp pointed things upon the mire.
 He maketh the deep to boil like a pot: he maketh the sea like a pot of ointment.
 He maketh a path to shine after him; one would think the deep to be hoary.
 Upon earth there is not his like, who is made without fear.
 He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the children of pride.
This “dragon” may have been something like the mighty 40 ft. (12 m) Sarcosuchus imperator (Super Croc), or the 82 ft. (25 m) Liopleurodon. Also the sea dragons could have included dinosaur-type animals such as the Mosasaurus.
Pss. 74  Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness.
Pss. 104  There go the ships: there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein.
Isa. 27  In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.
 Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps.
 And I went out by night by the gate of the valley, even before the dragon well, and to the dung port, and viewed the walls of Jerusalem, which were broken down, and the gates thereof were consumed with fire.
 I am a brother to dragons, and a companion to owls.
 Though thou hast sore broken us in the place of dragons, and covered us with the shadow of death.
 Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters.
 Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet.
 Praise the LORD from the earth, ye dragons, and all deeps:
 And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces: and her time is near to come, and her days shall not be prolonged.
 In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.
 And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof: and it shall be an habitation of dragons, and a court for owls.
 And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: in the habitation of dragons, where each lay, shall be grass with reeds and rushes.
 The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen.
 Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old. Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon?
 And I will make Jerusalem heaps, and a den of dragons; and I will make the cities of Judah desolate, without an inhabitant.
 Behold, the noise of the bruit is come, and a great commotion out of the north country, to make the cities of Judah desolate, and a den of dragons.
 And the wild asses did stand in the high places, they snuffed up the wind like dragons; their eyes did fail, because there was no grass.
 And Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons, and a desolation for ever: there shall no man abide there, nor any son of man dwell in it.
 Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled his belly with my delicates, he hath cast me out.
 And Babylon shall become heaps, a dwellingplace for dragons, an astonishment, and an hissing, without an inhabitant.
 Speak, and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for myself.
 Therefore I will wail and howl, I will go stripped and naked: I will make a wailing like the dragons, and mourning as the owls.
 And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.
Maybe it is not as old as you think :-)
Did Dinosaur Soft Tissues Still Survive?
New Research Challenges Notion
Science Daily (July 30, 2008) — Paleontologists in 2005 hailed research that apparently showed that soft, pliable tissues had been recovered from dissolved dinosaur bones, a major finding that would substantially widen the known range of preserved biomolecules.
Science Daily (Mar. 25, 2005) — Conventional wisdom among paleontologists states that when dinosaurs died and became fossilized, soft tissues didn’t preserve – the bones were essentially transformed into “rocks” through a gradual replacement of all organic material by minerals.
New research by a North Carolina State University paleontologist, however, could literally turn that theory inside out.
Dr. Mary Schweitzer, assistant professor of paleontology with a joint appointment at the N.C. Museum of Natural Sciences, has succeeded in isolating soft tissue from the femur of a 68-million-year-old dinosaur.
Not only is the tissue largely intact, it’s still transparent and pliable, and microscopic interior structures resembling blood vessels and even cells are still present.
In a paper published in the March 25 edition of the journal Science, Schweitzer describes the process by which she and her technician, Jennifer Wittmeyer, isolated soft organic tissue from the leg bone of a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex.
Schweitzer was interested in studying the microstructure and organic components of a dinosaur’s bone. All bone is made up of a combination of protein (and other organic molecules) and minerals. In modern bone, removing the minerals leaves supple, soft organic materials that are much easier to work with in a lab. In contrast, fossilized bone is believed to be completely mineralized, meaning no organics are present. Attempting to dissolve the minerals from a piece of fossilized bone, so the theory goes, would merely dissolve the entire fossil.
But the team was surprised by what actually happened when they removed the minerals from the T. rex femur fragment. The removal process left behind stretchy bone matrix material that, when examined microscopically, seemed to show blood vessels, osteocytes, or bone building cells, and other recognizable organic features.
Since current data indicates that living birds are more closely related to dinosaurs than any other group, Schweitzer compared the findings from the T. rex with structures found in modern-day ostriches. In both samples, transparent branching blood vessels were present, and many of the small microstructures present in the T. rex sample displayed the same appearance as the blood and bone cells from the ostrich sample.
Schweitzer then duplicated her findings with at least three other well-preserved dinosaur specimens, one 80-million-year-old hadrosaur and two 65-million-year-old tyrannosaurs. All of these specimens preserved vessels, cell-like structures, or flexible matrix that resembled bone collagen from modern specimens.
Current theories about fossil preservation hold that organic molecules should not preserve beyond 100,000 years.
Schweitzer hopes that further research will reveal exactly what the soft structures isolated from these bones are made of. Do they consist of the original cells, and if so, do the cells still contain genetic information? Her early studies of the material suggest that at least some fragments of the dinosaurs’ original molecular material may still be present.
“We may not really know as much about how fossils are preserved as we think,” says Schweitzer. “Our preliminary research shows that antibodies that recognize collagen react to chemical extracts of this fossil bone. If further studies confirm this, we may have the potential to learn more not only about the dinosaurs themselves, but also about how and why they were preserved in the first place.”
The research was funded by NC State, the N.C. Museum of Natural Sciences and the National Science Foundation.