One in Messiah Congregation

Messiah as a leper


Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 98a


Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship?1 R. Eliezer countered, But is it not written, if thou wilt return,2 O Israel, saith the Lord, return unto me?3 R. Joshua answered, But it is elsewhere written, And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times and a half’ and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.4 At this R. Eliezer remained silent.


R. Abba also said: There can be no more manifest [sign of] redemption than this: viz., what is said, But ye, O mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to my people of Israel, for they are at hand to come.5 R. Eleazar said: Than this too, as it is written, For before these days there was no hire for man, nor any hire for beast; neither was there any peace to him that went out or came in because of the affliction.6 What is meant by, ‘neither was there any peace to him that went out or came in because of the affliction?’ — Rab said: Even for scholars, who are promised peace,7 as it is written, Great peace have they which love thy law,8 ‘There [shall] be no peace on account of the affliction.’ Samuel said, ‘Until all prices are equal.’9


R. Hanina said: The Son of David will not come until a fish is sought for an invalid and cannot be procured, as it is written, Then will I make their waters deep, and cause their rivers to run like oil;10 whilst it is written,11 in that day will I cause the horn of the house of Israel to bud forth.12


R. Hama b. Hanina said: The son of David will not come until even the pettiest kingdom ceases [to have power] over Israel,13 as it is written, He shall both cut off the sprigs14 with pruning hooks, and take away and cut down the branches;15 and this is followed by, in that time shall the present be brought unto the Lord of hosts of a people that is scattered and peeled.16


Ze'iri said in R. Hanina's name: The son of David will not come until there are no conceited men in Israel, as it is written, For then I will take away out of the midst of thee them that rejoice in thy pride:17 which is followed by, I will also leave in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor people, and they shall take refuge in the name of the Lord.18


R. Simlai said in the name of R. Eleazar, son of R. Simeon: The son of David will not come until all judges and officers are gone from Israel, as it is written, And I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge away thy dross and take away all thy tin: And I will restore thy judges as at first.19


‘Ulla said: Jerusalem shall be redeemed only by righteousness,20 as it is written, Zion shall be redeemed with judgment, and her converts with righteousness.21


R. Papa said: When the haughty cease to exist [in Israel] the magi22 shall cease [among the Persians]; when the judges cease to exist [in Israel], the chiliarchi23 shall cease likewise. Now, when the haughty cease to exist, the magi shall also cease,as it is written, And I will purely purge away thy haughty ones24 and take away all thy tin.25 When the judges cease to exist, the chiliarchi shall cease likewise, as it is written, The Lord hath taken away thy judgments, he hath cast out thine enemy.26


R. Johanan said: When you see a generation ever dwindling, hope for him [the Messiah], as it is written, And the afflicted people thou wilt save.27 R. Johanan said: When thou seest a generation overwhelmed by many troubles as by a river, await him, as it is written, when the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him;28 which is followed by, And the Redeemer shall come to Zion.29


R. Johanan also said: The son of David will come only in a generation that is either altogether righteous or altogether wicked. in a generation that is altogether righteous,as it is written, Thy people also shall be all righteous: they shall inherit the land for ever.30 Or altogether wicked,’ — as it is written, And he saw that there was no man, and wondered that there was no intercessor;31 and it is [elsewhere] written, For mine own sake, even for mine own sake, will I do it.32


R. Alexandri said: R. Joshua b. Levi pointed out a contradiction. it is written, in its time [will the Messiah come], whilst it is also written, I [the Lord] will hasten it!33 — if they are worthy, I will hasten it: if not, [he will come] at the due time. R. Alexandri said: R. Joshua opposed two verses: it is written, And behold, one like the son of man came with the clouds of heaven34 whilst [elsewhere] it is written, [behold, thy king cometh unto thee . . . ] lowly, and riding upon an ass!35 — if they are meritorious, [he will come] with the clouds of heaven;36 if not , lowly and riding upon an ass. King Shapur [I] said to Samuel, ‘Ye maintain that the Messiah will come upon an ass: I will rather send him a white horse of mine.37 He replied, Have you a hundred-hued steed?’38


R. Joshua b. Levi met Elijah standing by the entrance of R. Simeon b. Yohai's tomb. He asked him: Have I a portion in the world to come? He replied, ‘if this Master desires it.39 R. Joshua b. Levi said, ‘I saw two, but heard the voice of a third.40 He then asked him, When will the Messiah come? Go and ask him himself,was his reply. Where is he sitting? At the entrance.41 And by what sign may I recognise him? He is sitting among the poor lepers: all of them untie [them]42 all at once, and rebandage them together,43 whereas he unties and rebandages each separately, [before treating the next], thinking, should I be wanted, [it being time for my appearance as the Messiah] I must not be delayed [through having to bandage a number of sores].’ So he went to him and greeted him, saying, peace upon thee, Master and Teacher.peace upon thee, O son of Levi, he replied. When wilt thou come Master? asked he,To-day, was his answer. On his returning to Elijah, the latter enquired, What did he say to thee? peace Upon thee, O son of Levi, he answered. Thereupon he [Elijah] observed, ‘He thereby assured thee and thy father of [a portion in] the world to come.He spoke falsely to me, he rejoined,stating that he would come to-day, but has not. He [Elijah] answered him, This is what he said to thee, To-day, if ye will hear his voice.44


The disciples of R. Jose b. Kisma asked him, When will the Messiah come?’ — He answered, ‘I fear lest ye demand a sign of me [that my answer is correct].’ They assured him, We will demand no sign of you.’ So he answered them, When this gate45 falls down, is rebuilt, falls again, and is again rebuilt, and then falls a third time, before it can be rebuilt the son of David will come. They said to him, Master, give us a sign. He protested,Did ye not assure me that ye would not demand a sign? They replied, Even so, [we desire one]. He said to them. ‘if so, let the waters of the grotto of Paneas turn into blood;’ and they turned into blood. When he lay dying he said to them, place my coffin deep [in the earth],


(1) ibid. XLIX, 7: ‘to him whom man despiseth etc.’ implies that he is still an unrepentant sinner (Rashi), or that their prostration in itself will bring about the redemption (Yad Ramah).

(2) I.e., to thy land.

(3) Jer. IV, 1.

(4) Dan. XII, 7, thus proving that Messiah's coming is dependant only upon the utter prostration of Israel, not his repentance.

(5) Ezek. XXXVI, 8. When Palestine becomes so very fertile, Messiah's advent is near, and there can be no clearer sign than this (Rashi).

(6) Zech. VIII, 10; I.e., when there is no money left, and troubles abound everywhere. Cf. supra ‘until the perutah ceases from the purse.’

(7) Lit., ‘concerning whom peace is written.’

(8) Ps. CXIX, 165.

(9) This is a difficult passage. Rashi explains it as meaning either that the prices of all commodities, e.g., wheat, wine, oil etc. shall be alike, or that all commodities shall be equally dear. But it is difficult to see how this explains’ neither was there any peace etc. Maharsha therefore connects this verse ‘to him that went out or came in’ with Ezek. XLVI, 9: But when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the solemn feasts, he that entereth in by the way of the north gate to worship shall go out by the way of the south gate; and he that entereth by the way of the south gate shall go forth by the way of the north gate . . . Accordingly he interprets: until all gates are alike, i.e., all people, whether entering or leaving the Temple-an idiom denoting ‘without exception’ — will suffer.

(10) Ezek. XXXII, 14. When an oily film covers the water, fish cannot be caught-an anticipation of the havoc to sea life wrought in modern times by oil-burning vessels?

(11) [in the same connection, dealing with the destruction of Egypt (Maharsha).]

(12) Ibid. XXIX, 21.

(13) [So Maharsha. Rashi renders: ‘until even the pettiest rule ceases among Israel’ — i.e., Israel will be deprived of all semblance of power.]

(14) Metaphorical for ‘petty kingdoms.’

(15) Isa. XVIII, 5.

(16) Ibid. 7.

(17) Zeph. III, 11.

(18) Ibid. 12: i.e., for them shall the redeemer come.

(19) Isa. I, 25f: this proves that they must first have been removed.

(20) I.e., through the exercise of charity.

(21) Ibid. 27.

(22) [The Guebres who were responsible for much of the suffering of the Jews under the Sassanians, v. supra p. 504, n. 6.]

(23) hyprhzd [Pers. Wezirpat, a ruler, Funk, Schwarz Festschrift, p. 432;] the name of a class of oppressive Persian officers.

(24) lhdhx from hdx, ‘great’, ‘haughty’.

(25) Metaphorically applied to the magi, as being ‘a cheap metal.’

(26) Zeph. III, 15.

(27) II Sam. XXII, 28.

(28) Isa. LIX, 19.

(29) Ibid. 20.

(30) Ibid. LX, 21.

(31) Ibid. LIX, 16.

(32) Ibid. XLVIII, 11.

(33) Ibid. LX, 22: The verse reads, I the Lord will hasten it in its time. The two phrases are contradictory, since ‘hasten it’ implies before its proper time.

(34) Dan. VII, 13.

(35) Zech. IX, 7.

(36) ‘Swiftly’ (Rashi).

(37) This is more fitting.

(38) [This jest is explained by Krochmal, (Hechalutz, I, p. 83) as an overt invitation to the Jews to help Shapur in his struggle with the Romans.]

(39) He referred to the Shechinah, which was with them (Rashi). Maharsha renders: when thou art worthy thereof.

(40) I.e., he saw only himself and Elijah there, but heard a third voice — that of the Shechinah.

(41) Cur. edd. read ‘ . . . of the town:’ The Wilna Gaon deletes this and substitutes ‘of Rome.’

(42) The bandages of their sores for dressing.

(43) I.e., if they have many leprous sores, they first take off all the bandages, and treat each sore, then replace them together.

(44) Ps. XCV, 7, thus he made his coming conditional-the condition was unfulfilled.

(45) [The gate of Caesarea Philippi, the home of R. Jose. Its fall would be a symbol of the destruction of the Roman power by the Parthians. Bacher, AT, I, p. 402.]


H6879 צרע tsara tsaw-rah'

A primitive root; to scourge , that is, (intransitively and figuratively) to be stricken with leprosy: - leper, leprous.

Total KJV Occurrences: 20

leper, 13

Lev_13:45, Lev_22:2-4 (3), Num_5:2, 2Sa_3:29, 2Ki_5:1, 2Ki_5:11, 2Ki_5:27, 2Ki_15:5, 2Ch_26:21 (2), 2Ch_26:23

leprous, 6

Exo_4:6, Lev_13:44, Num_12:10 (2), 2Ki_7:3, 2Ch_26:20

lepers, 1



H5060 נגע naga stricken

A primitive root; properly to touch , that is, lay the hand upon (for any purpose; euphemistically, to lie with a woman); by implication to reach (figuratively to arrive , acquire ); violently, to strike (punish, defeat, destroy, etc.): - beat, (X be able to) bring (down), cast, come (nigh), draw near (nigh), get up, happen, join, near, plague, reach (up), smite, strike, touch.


Total KJV Occurrences: 151

toucheth, 37

Exo_19:11-12 (2), Exo_29:37 , Exo_30:29, Lev_7:18-19 (2), Lev_11:24 , Lev_11:26-27 (2), Lev_11:36 , Lev_11:39 , Lev_15:5 , Lev_15:7, Lev_15:10-12 (3), Lev_15:19 , Lev_15:21-23 (3), Lev_15:27 , Lev_22:4-5 (2), Num_19:11, Num_19:13 , Num_19:16 , Num_19:21-22 (3), Job_4:5, Psa_104:32 , Pro_6:29 , Eze_17:10, Hos_4:2, Amo_9:5 , Zec_2:8 (2)

touch, 31

Gen_3:3 , Gen_20:6 , Exo_19:12-13 (2), Lev_5:2-3 (2), Lev_6:27 , Lev_7:21 , Lev_11:8, Lev_11:31 , Lev_12:4 , Num_4:15 , Num_16:26, Deu_14:8, Jos_9:19 , Rth_2:9 , 2Sa_14:10, 2Sa_23:7, 1Ch_16:22 , Job_1:11 , Job_2:5, Job_5:19, Job_6:7 , Psa_105:15 , Psa_144:5, Isa_52:11 , Lam_4:14-15 (3), Hag_2:12-13 (2)

touched, 24

Gen_26:29 , Gen_32:25 , Gen_32:32, Lev_22:6, Num_31:18-19 (2), Jdg_6:21 , 1Ki_6:26-27 (4), 1Ki_19:5, 1Ki_19:7 , 2Ki_13:21 , Est_5:2, Job_19:21 , Isa_6:7 , Jer_1:9 , Dan_8:5, Dan_8:18, Dan_9:21 , Dan_10:10 , Dan_10:16, Dan_10:18

come, 13

Jdg_20:41 , Rth_2:14 , 1Sa_14:9, Ezr_3:1, Est_2:12 , Est_2:15 , Est_4:14, Est_9:26, Psa_32:6 , Son_2:12 , Isa_16:8, Dan_8:7, Mic_1:9

came, 5

Neh_7:73 , Est_4:3 , Est_8:17 , Isa_30:4, Jon_3:6

near, 4

Jdg_20:34 , Est_9:1 , Psa_107:18, Eze_7:12

reach, 4

Job_20:6 , Isa_8:8 , Jer_48:32 , Zec_14:5

reacheth, 4

2Ch_28:9 , Jer_4:10 , Jer_4:18 , Jer_51:9

bring, 3

Lev_5:7 , Isa_25:12 , Eze_13:14

nigh, 3

Psa_32:6 , Psa_88:3 , Ecc_12:1

plagued, 3

Gen_12:17 , Psa_73:5 , Psa_73:14

reaching, 3

2Ch_3:11-12 (3)

happeneth, 2

Ecc_8:14 (2)

smote, 2

1Sa_6:9 , Job_1:19

able, 1


beaten, 1


bringeth, 1


brought, 1


cast, 1


cometh, 1


getteth, 1


join, 1

Isa_5:8 (2)

laid, 1


reached, 1


smitten, 1


stricken, 1


strike, 1



Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 98b


for there is not one palm-tree in Babylon to which a Persian horse will not be tethered, nor one coffin in Palestine out of which a Median horse will not eat straw.’1


Rab said: The son of David will not come until the [Roman] power enfolds Israel2 for nine months, as it is written, Therefore will he give them up, until the time that she which travaileth hath brought forth: then the remnant of his brethren shall return unto the children of Israel.3


‘Ulla said; Let him [The Messiah ] come, but let me not see him.4 Rabbah said likewise: Let him come, but let me not see him. R. Joseph said: Let him come, and may I be worthy of sitting in the shadow of his ass's saddle.5 Abaye enquired of Rabbah: ‘What is your reason [for not wishing to see him]? Shall we say, because of the birth pangs [preceding the advent] of the Messiah? 6 But it has been taught, R. Eleazar's disciples asked him: ‘What must a man do to be spared the pangs of the Messiah?’ [He answered,] ‘Let him engage in study and benevolence; and you Master do both.’ He replied: ‘[I fear] lest sin cause it,7 in accordance with [the teaching of] R. Jacob b. Idi, who opposed [two verses] [viz.,] it is written, And, Behold, I am with thee, and ‘will guard thee in all places whither thou goest:8 but it is written, Then Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed’9 — He was afraid that sin might cause [the nullification of God's promise]. Even as it was taught, Till thy people pass over, O Lord.’10 this refers to the first entry [into Palestine]; till thy people pass over, which thou hast purchased:11 this refers to their second entry. Hence you may reason: The Israelites were as worthy of a miracle being wrought for them at the second entry as at the first, but that sin caused it [not to happen].


R. Johanan said likewise: Let him come, and let me not see him. Resh Lakish said to him: Why so? Shall we say, because it is written, As if a man did flee from a lion, and a bear met him,’ or went into the house, and leaned his hand on the wall, and a serpent bit him?12 But come, and I will shew you its like even in this world. When one goes out into the field and meets a bailiff,13 it is as though he had met a lion. When he enters the town, and is accosted by a tax-collector, it is as though he had met a bear. On entering his house and finding his sons and daughters in the throes of hunger, it is as though he were bitten by a serpent!14 — But [his unwillingness to see the Messiah] is because it is written, Ask ye now, and see whether a man doth travail with child? Wherefore do I see every man [geber]15 with his hands on his loins, as a woman in travail, and all faces are turned into paleness?16 What is meant by ‘wherefore do I see every geber?’ — Raba b. Isaac said in Rab's name: it refers to Him to whom all geburah17 [strength] belongs.18 And what is the meaning of ‘and all faces are turned into paleness?’ — R. Johanan said: [This refers to God's] heavenly family [I.e., the angels] and his earthly family [I.e., Israel,] when God says, These [the Gentiles] are my handiwork, and so are these [the Jews]; how shall I destroy the former on account of the latter?19 R. Papa said: Thus men say, ‘When the ox runs and falls, the horse is put into his stall.’20


R. Giddal said in Rab's name: The Jews are destined to eat [their fill] in the days of the Messiah.21 R. Joseph demurred: is this not obvious; who else then should eat — Hilek and Bilek?22 — This was said in opposition to R. Hillel, who maintained that there will be no Messiah for Israel, since they have already enjoyed him during the reign of Hezekiah .23


Rab said: The world was created only on David's account .24 Samuel said: On Moses account;25 R. Johanan said: For the sake of the Messiah. What is his [the Messiah's] name? — The School of R. Shila said: His name is Shiloh , for it is written, until Shiloh come.26 The School of R. Yannai said: His name is Yinnon, for it is written, His name shall endure for ever:

Pss.72[ 17] His name shall endure for ever: his name shall be continued as long as the sun : Yinnon - and men shall be blessed in him: all nations shall call him blessed.

יְהִי שְׁמוֹ, לְעוֹלָם־־ לִפְנֵי־שֶׁמֶשׁ, ינין )יִנּוֹן( שְׁמוֹ:


27 e'er the sun was, his name is Yinnon.28 The School of R. Haninah maintained: His name is Haninah, as it is written, Where I will not give you Haninah.29 Others say: His name is Menahem the son of Hezekiah,for it is written, Because Menahem [‘the comforter’ ], that would relieve my soul, is far.30 The Rabbis said: His name is ‘the leper scholar,’ as it is written, Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him a leper, smitten of God, and afflicted.31


R. Nahman said: if he [the Messiah] is of those living [to day], it might be one like myself, as it is written, And their nobles shall be of themselves, and their governors shall proceed from the midst of them.32 Rab said: if he is of the living, it would be our holy Master;33 if of the dead, it would have been Daniel the most desirable man.34 Rab Judah said in Rab's name: The Holy One, blessed be He, will raise up another David for us,35 as it is written, But they shall serve the Lord their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them:36 not ‘I raised up’, but ‘I will raise up’ is said. R. Papa said to Abaye: But it is written, And my servant David shall be their prince [nasi] for ever?37 — E.g., an emperor and a viceroy.38


R. Simlai expounded: What is meant by, Woe unto you, that desire the day of the Lord! to what end is it for you? the day of the Lord is darkness, and not light.?39 This may be compared to a cock and a bat who were hopefully waiting for the light [i.e., dawn]. The cock said to the bat, ‘I look forward to the light, because I have sight; but of what use is the light to thee?’40


(1) This was a forecast of the future. Babylon and Palestine would be overrun with Persians, Medes and Parthians and their horses would dig up the dead, whose coffins would serve as cribs.

(2) I.e., the whole world in which Israel is scattered.

(3) Micah V, 2: ‘therefore will he give them up’ is interpreted as meaning to a foreign — viz., the Roman — power, and the duration of their servitude is fixed by ‘until the time etc.’ i.e., nine months, the period of pregnancy.

(4) V. n. 7.

(5) [Following the reading in Yalkut (v. Levy,) tkuac. Our texts read: t,hpufs, ‘dung’.]

(6) These troubles are generally referred to as birth pangs, being the travail which precedes the birth of a new era.

(7) That sin may neutralise the other two, and so I will suffer after all.

(8) Gen. XXVIII, 15; spoken by God to Jacob.

(9) Ibid. XXXII, 8: in view of God's promise, why did he fear?

(10) Ex. XV, 16.

(11) Ibid.

(12) Amos V, 19.

(13) Who contests his title to the field-(Jast.). Rashi translates: an official surveyor, who fixes the boundary lines of the different owners, and thus may increase or: limit one's property.

(14) I.e., we experience the same successive troubles even now, without the Messiah coming: why then should you be afraid of it?

(15) rcd.

(16) Jer. XXX, 6.

(17) vrucd.

(18) I.e., the Almighty himself bewails Israel in the power of the Gentile.

(19) To avenge the wrongs suffered by the Jews. Because the suffering would be so great that even the Almighty would lament it, R. Johanan desired to be spared the Messiah's coming.

(20) The horse is made to replace it, but when the ox recovers, it is difficult to remove the horse. So the Israelites, having fallen, were replaced in power by the Gentiles: but on their recovery, it will be difficult to remove the Gentiles from their position without inflicting much suffering.

(21) I.e., the years of plenty which the Messiah will usher in will be enjoyed by the Israelites.’

(22) Two fictitious names — ‘any Tom, Dick and Harry’ — shall these years be enjoyed indiscriminately by anyone?

(23) Therefore R. Giddal puts it in the future.

(24) That he might sing hymns and psalms to God.

(25) That he might receive the Torah.

(26) Gen. XLIX, 10.

(27) E.V. ‘shall be continued’.

(28) Ps. LXXII, 17.

(29) Jer. XVI, 13. Thus each School evinced intense admiration of its teacher in naming the Messiah after him by a play on words.

(30) Lam. I, 16.

(31) Isa. LIII, 4.

(32) Jer. XXX, 21: this description fitted R. Nahman, who, as the son-in-law of the Resh Galutha, enjoyed great power and prestige.

(33) I.e., R. Judah the Nasi, generally called Rabbi par excellence.

(34) [Preferably, if of the living, our holy Master (would be the type) of the Messiah; if of the dead, Daniel.]

(35) Lit., ‘for them’.

(36) Ibid. XXX, 9.

(37) Ezek. XXXVII, 25: prince (nasi) is a lower title than king.

(38) The second David shall be the king, and the former David shall be his viceroy.

(39) Amos V, 18.

(40) Thus Israel should hope for the redemption, because it will be a day of light to them: but why should the Gentiles, seeing that for them it will be a day of darkness?


Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 99a


And thus a Min 1 said to R. Abbahu: ‘When will the Messiah come?’ He replied, ‘When darkness covers those people.’2 ‘You curse me, he exclaimed. He retorted, ‘it is but a verse: For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the Lord shall shine upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.’3


It has been taught: R. Eliezer said: The days of the Messiah will last forty years, as it is written, Forty years long shall I take hold of the generation.4 R. Eleazar b. Azariah said: Seventy years, as it is written, And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king.5 Now, who is the one [uniquely distinguished] king? The Messiah, of course. Rabbi said: Three generations; for it is written, They shall fear thee with the sun, and before the moon [they shall fear thee], a generation and generations.6


R. Hillel7 said: There shall be no Messiah for Israel,8 because they have already enjoyed him in the days of Hezekiah. R. Joseph said: May God forgive him [for saying so]. Now, when did Hezekiah flourish? During the first Temple. Yet Zechariah, prophesying in the days of the second, proclaimed, Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion, shout, O daughter of Jerusalem, behold, thy king cometh unto thee! he is just, and having salvation, lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.9


Another [Baraitha] taught: R. Eliezer said: The days of the Messiah will be forty years. Here it is written, And he afflicted thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna;10 whilst elsewhere it is written, Make us glad, according to the days wherein thou hast afflicted us.11 R. Dosa said: Four hundred years. It is here written, And they shall serve them,’ and they shall afflict them four hundred years;12 whilst elsewhere it is written, Make us glad, according to the days wherein thou hast afflicted us. Rabbi said: Three hundred and sixtyfive years, even as the days of the solar year, as it is written, For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redemption is come.13 What is meant by ‘the day of vengeance is in mine heart’? — R. Johanan said: I have [so to speak] revealed it to my heart, but not to my [outer] limbs.14 Abimi the son of R. Abbahu learned: The days of Israel's Messiah shall be seven thousand years, as it is written, And as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.15 Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: The days of the Messiah shall endure as long as from the Creation until now, as it is written, [That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, in the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers to give to them,] as the days of heaven upon the earth.16 R. Nahman b. Isaac said: As long as from Noah's days until our own, as it is written, For this is as the waters of Noah, which are mine, so I have sworn etc.17


R. Hiyya b. Abba said in R. Johanan's name: All the prophets prophesied [all the good things] only in respect of the Messianic era; but as for the world to come ‘the eye hath not seen, O Lord, beside thee, what he hath prepared for him that waiteth for him.’18 Now, he disagrees with Samuel, who said: This world differs from [that of] the days of the Messiah only in respect of servitude to [foreign] powers.


R. Hiyya b. Abba also said in R. Johanan's name: All the prophets prophesied only for repentant sinners; but as for the perfectly righteous [who had never sinned at all], ‘the eye hath not seen, O God, beside thee, what he hath prepared for him that waiteth for him.’ Now he differs from R. Abbahu, who said: The place occupied by repentant sinners cannot be attained even by the completely righteous, for it is written, Peace, peace, to him that is far off and to him that is near:19 thus, first he that is ‘far off’, then he that is ‘near’. Now what is meant by ‘far off’? — originally far off;20 and what is meant by ‘near’? — originally near [and still so].21 But R. Johanan interprets: ‘him that is far off’ — that is [and has been] far from sin; ‘him that is near’ — that was near to sin, but is now far off.


R. Hiyya b. Abba also said in R. Johanan's name: All the prophets prophesied only in respect of him who marries his daughter to a scholar, or engages in business on behalf of a scholar,22 or benefits a scholar with his possessions; but as for scholars themselves, — ‘the eye hath not seen, O God, beside thee etc.’ What does ‘the eye hath not seen’ refer to? — R. Joshua b. Levi said: To the wine that has been kept [maturing] with its grapes since the six days of Creation. Resh Lakish said: To Eden, which no eye has ever seen; and should you demur, Where then did Adam live? in the Garden. And should you object, The Garden and Eden are one: therefore Scripture teaches, And a river issued from Eden to water the garden.23


AND HE WHO MAINTAINS THAT THE TORAH WAS NOT DIVINELY REVEALED. Our Rabbis taught: Because he hath despised the word of the Lord, and hath broken his commandment, that soul shall utterly be cut off:24 this refers to him who maintains that the Torah is not from Heaven. Another rendering: Because he hath despised the word of the Lord, refers to an epikoros. Another rendering: Because he hath despised the word of the Lord, refers to one who gives an interpretation of the Torah25 [not according to the halachah]. And hath broken his commandment: this means one who abolishes the covenant of flesh.26 That soul shall utterly be cut off [hikkareth tikkareth]: ‘hikkareth’ [to be cut off] implies in this world; ‘tikkareth’ [it shall be cut off], in the next.27 Hence R. Eliezer of Modi'im taught: He who defiles the sacred food, despises the festivals,28 abolishes the covenant of our father Abraham,29 gives an interpretation of the Torah not according to the halachah, and publicly shames his neighbour, even if he hath learning and good deeds to his credit, hath no portion in the future world.30


Another [Baraitha] taught: Because he hath despised the word of the Lord — this refers to him who maintains that the Torah is not from Heaven. And even if he asserts that the whole Torah is from Heaven, excepting a particular verse, which [he maintains] was not uttered by God but by Moses himself, he is included in ‘because he hath despised the word of the Lord.’ And even if he admits that the whole Torah is from Heaven, excepting a single point, a particular ad majus deduction or a certain gezerah shawah, — he is still included in ‘because he hath despised the word of the Lord’.


It has been taught: R. Meir used to say: He who studies the Torah but does not teach it is alluded to in ‘he hath despised the word of the Lord’. R. Nathan said: [it refers to] whoever pays no heed to the Mishnah.31 R. Nehorai said: Whosoever can engage in the study of the Torah but fails to do so. R. Ishmael said: This refers to heathens. How is this implied? — Even as the school of Ishmael taught: Because he hath despised the word of the Lord — this applies to one who despises the words spoken to Moses at Sinai, viz., I am the Lord thy God . . . Thou shalt have no other gods before me.32


R. Joshua b. Karha said: Whosoever studies the Torah and does not revise it is likened unto one who sows without reaping. R. Joshua said: He who studies the Torah and then forgets it is like a woman who bears [a child] and buries [it.] R. Akiba said:


(1) V. p. 604, n. 12.

(2) Alluding to the questioner and his companions.

(3) Isa. LX, 2.

(4) Ps. XCV, 10: I.e., rule over them through the Messiah (rendered, ‘I wearied’) is connected with root ‘to hold’.

(5) Isa. XXIII, 15.

(6) Ps. LXXII, 5. The verse is thus interpreted: They shall fear thee when Messiah comes, who is referred to as a sun (cf. 17), and they shall fear thee on account of the reign of the house of David, which is likened to the moon (cf. LXXXIX, 39: He shall be established for ever as the moon) for a generation (one) and generations (two).

(7) [A brother of Judah II.]

(8) But the Almighty will himself redeem israel and reign over them (Rashi). [‘He may have been prompted to this declaration by Origen's professed discovery in the Old Testament of Messianic passages referring to the founder of Christianity’ (J.E. VI, 401).]

(9) Zech. IX, 9.

(10) Deut. VIII, 3.

(11) Ps. XC, 15: hence, just as they were afflicted forty years in the wilderness, so shall they rejoice forty years under the kingship of the Messiah.

(12) Gen. XV, 13.

(13) Isa. LXIII, 4. This is interpreted: For it is in mine heart (I.e., intention) that the year (365 days) of redemption shall come, of which each day shall be as long as the day of my vengeance. God's day of vengeance is a year, as in the case of the Spies, on account of whom the Israelites were condemned to wander forty years in the wilderness, — a year for each day of their mission. Cf. Num. XIV, 34 (Rashi). Maharsha explains it in a simpler fashion: For each day of the year that they afflicted Israel, I will take vengeance a full year; as there was a year of days, so will my vengeance last 365 years.

(14) I.e., I have kept my intentions sealed in my heart, not giving expression to them with my tongue, that all my limbs should know thereof.

(15) Isa. LXII, 5. The bridegroom's rejoicing is seven days, and God's day is a thousand years. Cf. Ps. XC, 4: For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past.

(16) Deut. XI, 21: I.e., as long as the world has already existed. Since they were not settled so long in their land, it will be completed in the Messianic era.

(17) Isa. LIV, 9. The time that had elapsed since the days of Noah until the moment when this promise was made is regarded as God's, and he swears that for an equal period he will not be wroth with Israel, I.e., when Messiah reigns over them.

(18) Ibid. LXIV, 3.

(19) Ibid. LVII, 19.

(20) I.e., a sinner who is far from God.

(21) One who has never sinned. Thus he assigns a higher rank to the repentant sinner than to the completely righteous.

(22) [I.e., assigns him a share in his business as sleeping partner.]

(23) Gen. II, 10.

(24) Num. XV, 31.

(25) [Or, ‘who acts insolently against the Torah’, the phrase ohbp vkdn being similar to the English ‘bare-faced’. This, and epikoros, are discussed further on.]

(26) I.e., who neglects the precept of circumcision. Weiss, Dor. II. p. 8 states that the Rabbinic teachings in praise of circumcision and their emphasis on the penalty of its neglect were directed against the Christians, who substituted baptism for it; v. also n. 5 for another interpretation.

(27) V. supra 90b.

(28) The reference is to the intermediate days of Passover and Tabernacles, called sgun ka ukuj, the week-days of the festival.

(29) Graetz. Gesch., IV, p. 73, n. 1. suggests that this refers to epiplasm, I.e., drawing a skin over the circumcision so as to hide it. This was resorted to by the Judeo-Christians in order to evade the Fiscus Judaicus, I.e., the Temple Tax which Vespasian converted into a per capita tax for the upkeep of Jupiter's Temple. The galling nature of such conversion, added to the fact that it singled out the Jews as definitely not being full citizens of the Roman Empire with all the privileges and exemptions appertaining thereto, and the severity with which Domitian, a later emperor, applied it, combined to induce a number of these semi-Jews to deny their Judaism altogether and to hide the marks of their circumcision.

(30) V. Aboth III, 15.

(31) Rabbi's compilation was held in such high esteem that to disregard it was considered a sin.

(32) Ex. XX, 2f.


Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 99b


‘Chant it every day, chant it every day.’1 Said R. Isaac b. Abudimi: What verse [supports this]? — He that laboureth laboureth for himself for his mouth craveth it of him:2 he toils in one place, the Torah toils for him in another.3


R. Eleazar said: Every man is born for toil, as it is written, Yet man is born for toil.4 Now, I do not know whether for toil by mouth or by hand, but when it is said, for his mouth craveth it of him, I may deduce that toil by mouth is meant.5 Yet I still do not know whether for toil in the Torah or in [secular] conversation, but when it is said, This book of the Torah shall not depart out of thy mouth,6 I conclude that one was created to labour in the Torah. And this coincides with Raba's dictum, viz., All human bodies are carriers; happy are they who are worthy of being receptacles of the Torah.


Whoso committeth adultery with a woman lacketh understanding.7 Resh Lakish said: This alludes to one who studies the Torah at [irregular] intervals,8 as it is written, For it is a pleasant thing if thou keep them within thee; they shall withal be fitted in thy lips.9


Our Rabbis taught: But the soul that doeth aught presumptuously:10 this refers to Manasseh the Son of Hezekiah, who examined [Biblical] narratives to prove them worthless. Thus, he jeered, had Moses nothing to write but, And Lotan's sister was Timna,11 And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz,12 And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field.13 Thereupon a Heavenly Voice cried out: Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine own mother's son. These things hast thou done, and I kept silence, thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one as thyself’ but I will reprove thee, and set them in order before thine eyes.14 And of him it is explicitly stated in the post-Mosaic Scriptures,15 Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope.16 What is meant by ‘and sin as it were with a cart rope’? — R. Assi said: Temptation at first is like a spider's thread, but eventually like a cart rope.


A propos, what is the purpose of [writing], And Lotan's sister was Timna? — Timna was a royal princess, as it is written, alluf [duke] Lotan,17 alluf [duke] Timna;18 and by ‘alluf’ an uncrowned ruler is meant. Desiring to become a proselyte, she went to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, but they did not accept her. So she went and became a concubine to Eliphaz the son of Esau, saying, ‘I had rather be a servant to this people than a mistress of another nation.’ From her Amalek was descended who afflicted Israel. Why so? — Because they should not have repulsed her.


And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest [and found mandrakes in the field]. Raba b. Isaac said in Rab's name: This shews that righteous men do not take what is not theirs.19 And found dudaim20 [mandrakes] in the field. What are dudaim? — Rab said: mandrakes;21 Levi said: violets; R. Jonathan said: mandrake flowers.


R. Alexandri said: He who studies the Torah for its own sake22 makes peace in the Upper Family23 and the Lower Family [men], as it is written, Or let him take hold of my strength [i.e., the Torah], that he may make peace with me; and he shall make peace with me.24 Rab said: it is as though he built the heavenly and the earthly Temples, as it is written, And I have put my words in thy mouth, and I have covered thee in the shadow of mine hand, that I may plant the heavens, and lay the foundations of the earth, and say unto Zion, Thou art my people.25 R. Johanan said: He also shields the whole world [from the consequences of its sins], for it is written, and I have covered [i.e.,protected] thee in the shadow of mine hand. Levi said: He also hastens26 the redemption, as it is written, and say unto Zion, Thou art my people.


Resh Lakish said: He who teaches Torah to his neighbour's son is regarded by Scripture as though he had fashioned him, as it is written, and the souls which they had made in Haran.27 R. Eleazar said: As though he himself had created the words of the Torah, as it is written, Keep therefore the words of this covenant, and make them.28 Raba said: As though he had made himself, for it is written, ‘and make them’: render not them but yourselves.29


R. Abbahu said: He who causes his neighbour to fulfil a precept is regarded by Scripture as though he had done it himself, for it is written, [The Lord said unto Moses . . . take . . . ] thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river:30 did Moses then smite it? Aaron smote it! But, he who causes his neighbour to fulfil a precept, is regarded by Scripture as though he had done it himself.


AN EPIKOROS. Rab and R. Hanina both taught that this means one who insults a scholar. R. Johanan and R. Joshua b. Levi maintained that it is one who insults his neighbour in the presence of a scholar. Now on the view that he who insults his neighbour in the presence of a scholar is an epikoros, it is well; for then he who insults a scholar himself will be included in the expression, ‘he who acts impudently against the Torah.’31 But on the view that he who insults a scholar himself is an epikoros, who is meant by ‘she who acts impudently against the Torah’? — E.g., Manasseh b. Hezekiah.32 Others taught this [dispute] with reference to the second clause: ‘he who acts impudently against the Torah.’ Rab and R. Hanina both maintained that this means one who insults a scholar himself, whilst R. Johanan and R. Joshua b. Levi held that it is one who insults his neighbour in the presence of a scholar. Now, on the view that he who insults a scholar himself is denoted by the expression ‘he who acts impudently against the Torah,’ it is well, for then he who insults his neighbour in a scholar's presence is dubbed an epikoros; but on the view that he who insults his neighbour in the presence of a scholar ‘is considered to have acted impudently against the Torah, who then is meant by epikoros? — R. Joseph said: E.g., Those who give, ‘Of what use are the Rabbis to us? For their own benefit they read [the Scripture], and for their own benefit they study [post-Scriptural learning, particularly the Mishnah]’. Abaye said to him: But this too denotes acting impudently against the Torah, as it is written, Thus saith the Lord, But for my covenant [studied] day and night, I had not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth.33 R. Nahman b. Isaac said: it is also deduced from the verse, Then I will spare all the place for their sakes.34 But it means one, e.g., who was sitting before his teacher, when the discussion turned to some other subject, and the disciple remarked, ‘We said so and so on that matter,’ instead of ‘Thou Master hast said.’35 Raba said: E.g., The family of Benjamin the doctor who say, ‘Of what use are the Rabbis to us? They have never


(1) Revise thy learning with a chant. To aid the memory, a system of chanting was in use for study and revision.

(2) Prov. XVI, 26.

(3) I.e., as a reward for repeated revision, the Torah ensures him a complete remembrance and understanding thereof.

(4) Job. V, 7.

(5) I.e., study.

(6) Josh. I, 8.

(7) Prov. VI, 32.

(8) As adultery is naturally committed.

(9) Ibid. XXII, 18-one can keep the Torah only if its words are fitted — always — on his lips, not at rare intervals only.

(10) Num. XV, 30.

(11) Gen. XXXVI, 22.

(12) Ibid. 12.

(13) Ibid. XXX, 14.

(14) Ps. L, 20 f.

(15) vkce kabbalah is used in contradistinction to Torah, the Pentateuch.

(16) Isa. V, 18.

(17) ;ukt Gen. XXXVI, 28.

(18) Ibid. 40.

(19) Lit., stretch forth their hands to theft.’ Since Reuben went when the fields had already been reaped, after which it is permissible for all to enter (Rashi). Maharsha explains: The wheat had not yet been harvested, but Reuben was careful to take only mandrakes, to which the owner of the field would not object.

(20) ohtsus.

(21) hjurch ‘the chaser’, perhaps on account of its use to expel demons ; v. Ginzberg, Legends, V, 298, n. 189.]

(22) For the love of learning, without ulterior motives.

(23) I.e., the angels.

(24) Isa. XXVII, 5; the repetition shews that peace amongst two groups is meant.

(25) Ibid. LI, 16. The eschatology of the apocalyptic writers and many Rabbis looked forward to the creation of a Heavenly Temple in the Messianic era-Enoch XC, 29 et seq.; cf. Hag. 12b.

(26) Lit., ‘brings nearer’.

(27) Gen. XII, 5. Since no human being can make (create) life, this is interpreted as meaning whom Abraham taught; v. supra 19b.

(28) Deut. XXIX, 9.

(29) Not o,ut but o,t [instruction, like the quality of mercy, ‘blesseth him that gives and him that takes’; cf. Mak. 10a; ‘Much have I learned from my Masters, more from my fellow-students, but from my disciples most of all.’]

(30) Ex. XVII, 5.

(31) So Rashi; v. supra p. 672, n. 1.

(32) V. supra.

(33) Jer. XXXIII, 25, i.e., the world endures only because the Torah (‘my covenant’) is studied. To deny the utility of scholars therefore is ‘to act bare-faced’, I.e., express disbelief of what is asserted in the Torah.

(34) Gen. XVIII, 26. To the Rabbis of the Talmud, scholarship and righteousness are synonymous.

(35) I.e., taking partial credit for the dictum, when in reality it belonged entirely to the teacher.


Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 100a


permitted us the raven, nor forbidden us the dove.’1 Whenever a [suspected] trefa2 of the family Benjamin was brought before Raba, if he saw a reason for permitting it, he would remark to them, ‘See, I permit you the raven:’ if there were grounds for forbidding it, he would observe, ‘See, I forbid you the dove’.3 R. Papa forgot himself and exclaimed, ‘O these Rabbis.’4 Thereupon he kept a fast.


Levi b. Samuel and R. Huna b. Hiyya were repairing the mantles of the Scrolls of R. Judah's college. On coming to the Scroll of Esther, they remarked, ‘O, this Scroll of Esther does not require a mantle.’5 Thereupon he reproved them, ‘This too savours of irreverence.’6 R. Nahman said: [An epikoros is] one who calls his teacher by name,7 for R. Johanan said: Why was Gehazi punished? Because he called his master by name, as it is written, And Gehazi said, My lord, O King, this is the woman, and this is her son, whom Elisha restored to life.8


R. Jeremiah sat before R. Zera and declared: The Holy One, blessed be He, will bring forth a stream from the Holy of Holies, at the side of which shall be all kinds of delicious fruits, as it is written, And by the river upon that bank thereof on this side and on that side, shall grow all trees for meat, whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the fruit thereof be consumed: it shall bring forth new fruit, according to his months, because their waters they issued out of the sanctuary: and the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine.9 Whereupon a certain10 old man said to him, ‘Well spoken! and R. Johanan taught likewise.’ R. Jeremiah said to R. Zera: Such an attitude savours of irreverence.11 He replied: But he merely supported you! But if you have heard of something [which may be dubbed irreverent] it is this: R. Johanan was sitting and teaching: The Holy One, blessed be He, will bring jewels and precious stones, each thirty cubits long, and thirty cubits high, and make an engraving in them, ten by twenty cubits, and set them up as the gates of Jerusalem, for it is written, And I will make thy windows of agates, and thy gates of carbuncles.12 A certain disciple derided him saying, ‘We do not find a jewel even as large as a dove's egg, yet such huge ones are to exist!’ Some time later he took a sea journey and saw the ministering angels cutting precious stones and pearls. He said unto them: ‘For what are these?’ They replied: ‘The Holy One, blessed be He, will set them up as the gates of Jerusalem.’ On his return, he found R. Johanan sitting and teaching. He said to him: ‘Expound, O Master, and it is indeed fitting for you to expound, for even as you did say, so did I myself see.’ ‘Wretch!’ he exclaimed, ‘had you not seen, you would not have believed! You deride the words of the Sages!’ He set his eyes upon him, and he turned in to a heap of bones.13


An objection was raised: And I will make you go Komamiyuth [upright].14 R. Meir said: it means [with a height of] two hundred cubits, twice the height of Adam.15 R. Judah said: A hundred cubits, corresponding to the [length of the Temple] and its walls, as it is written, That our sons may be as plants grown up in their youth; that our daughters may be as corner stones, fashioned after the similitude of the Temple!16 — R. Johanan referred only to the ventilation windows.17


What is meant by and the leaf thereof li-terufah18 [for medicine]?19 R. Isaac b. Abudimi and R. Hisda differ therein: One maintained, to unlock the upper mouth;20 the other, to unseal the lower mouth.21 it has been said likewise.22 Hezekiah said: To free the mouth of the dumb; Bar Kappara said: To open the mouth23 of barren women. R. Johanan said: Literally for a medicine. What does this mean? — R. Samuel b. Nahmani said: To give a comely countenance to scholars.24


R. Judah, son of R. Simeon, expounded: He who emaciates25 his face for the sake of the study of the Torah in this world,26 the Holy One, blessed be He, will make his lustre shine in the next, as it is written,: His countenance shall be as the Lebanon, excellent as the cedars.27 R. Tanhum b. R. Hanilai said: He who starves himself for the sake of the study of the Torah in this world, the Holy One, blessed be He, will fully satisfy him in the next, as it is written, They shall be abundantly satisfied with the fatness of thy house; and thou shalt make them drink of the river of thy pleasures.28 When R. Dimi came,29 he said: The Holy One, blessed be He, will give every righteous man His full Hand30 [of reward], for it is written, Blessed be the Lord, who daily loadeth us with benefits, even the God of our salvation. Selah.31 Abaye demurred: But is it possible to say thus: is it not written, Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with the span?32 — He replied, Why are you not found familiar with the aggadah?33 For it was said in the West, [i.e., Palestine ] ( should be Israel ) in the name of Raba b. Mari: The Holy One, blessed be He, will give to every righteous man three hundred ten worlds, as it is written, That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance [yesh]34 and I will fill their treasures:35 now the numerical value of yesh is three hundred ten.36


It has been taught, R. Meir said: in the measure which one measures, so will there be [measured out] to him, as it is written, in measure, when it shooteth forth, thou wilt contend with it.37 R. Judah said: But can we say thus: if one gives a handful [of charity] to a poor man in this world, shall the Holy One, blessed be He, give him His hand full in the next? Surely it is written, and meted out heaven with the span? — [He replied:] Do you not admit this? [Now consider:] Which measure is greater? That of goodness [i.e., reward] or of punishment?


(1) in spite of all their discussions, they cannot go beyond what is written in the Torah.

(2) V. Glos.

(3) To shew them that in practice the Rabbis did decide whether a thing was permitted or not.

(4) Contemptuously.

(5) Being of the opinion that its sanctity was of a lower grade, so that it would not defile one's hands through contact with it. The defilement of the hands by Holy Scriptures was one of the Eighteen Decrees adopted in the year 65. V. Shab. 14a.

(6) Rashi explains, because they took it upon themselves, without consulting him. Maharsha says because they spoke slightingly of its sanctity.

(7) Which was regarded as irreverent.

(8) II Kings VIII, 5.

(9) Ezek. XLVII, 12.

(10) [Wherever the Talmud speaks of ‘a certain old man’, Elijah is thought by some to be meant. V. Tosaf. Hul. 6a.]

(11) Perhaps he thought it an insinuation of plagiarism. Rashi renders it as a question: ‘Would such an attitude savour of irreverence?’

(12) Isa. LIV, 12.

(13) V. B. B. 75a.

(14) Lev. XXVI, 13.

(15) Deriving ,uhnnue from vnue, one's stature. That is, the people will gain in stature to twice the height of Adam. According to tradition, Adam's height was one hundred cubits (Hag. 12a).

(16) Psalms CXLIV, 12. The complete length of the Temple, including the porch, the chamber behind the main Hall, and the thickness of the intervening walls, was 100 cubits (Rashi); cf. B.B. (Sonc. ed.) p. 301. How then could such tall people pass through an aperture only 20 cubits high?

(17) These would be ten by twenty: but the gates themselves would be much taller.

(18) vpur,k.

(19) V. supra.

(20) I.e., to make the dumb speak, a play on the word vpur,k vp rh,vk

(21) I.e., to make the barren womb bear child; cf. n. 3.

(22) ‘Likewise’ is absent from the version in Men. 98a, where this is repeated. The context justifies its retention.

(23) A euphemism for ‘womb’.

(24) Lit., ‘to the possessors of mouths’, those who toil with their mouths; v. supra 99b.

(25) Lit., ‘blackens’.

(26) I.e., who undergoes privation and want.

(27) Cant. V, 15.

(28) Ps. XXXVI, 9.

(29) V. p. 390, n. 1.

(30) Lit., ‘pack, ‘load’

(31) Ps. LXVIII, 20.

(32) Isa. XL, 12. How then can man receive such a great reward?

(33) V. Glos.

(34) ah.

(35) Prov. VIII, 21.

(36) Thus man's receptive capacity will be enormously increased — that too is the probable meaning of this statement.

(37) Isa. XXVII, 8, I.e., in the same measure that sin spreads, so it is punished, and conversely, the same holds good of righteousness — the conception of ‘measure for measure’.

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